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how_to_use_the_command_line_interface_-_examples [2013/08/25 08:07]
Peter Tesar
how_to_use_the_command_line_interface_-_examples [2019/02/09 10:31]
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-======How to Use the Command Line Interface - examples====== 
-  By Peter Tesar 
- 
-Here are examples that demonstrate a broad range of useful tasks that can be performed from the command line. Some tasks show more than one command and some commands have been repeated to show a few of its useful options. For more comprehensive information about a particular command, use the man pages or search the internet. 
- 
-It is assumed that the user has a basic understanding of Linux and the command line. For more details see the article "How to Use the Command Line Interface". 
- 
-Note: each task is preceded with the pattern ‘T>’. 
- 
-Here are some points to be aware of. 
- 
-Linux is case sensitive. 
- 
-Commands have the form (syntax):\\ 
- $ command [-option] argument 
- 
-Some commands or packages may need to be installed. 
- 
-Assume that the hard drive is labeled /dev/sda and a USB pen drive is /dev/sdb1.\\ 
-The last number is the partition number. 
- 
-All of these examples work on the Ubuntu 12.0.2 version of Linux using the BASH shell and the virtual console. Some devices may not be recognized.\\ 
-E.g. scanners or printers. 
- 
-If the Desktop was used to establish a network connection, or install the Codecs, they will be in effect in the console. The codecs contains third party software that is necessary to access non open source formats.\\ 
-E.G. the .mp3 audio compression format is not open source. 
- 
- 
-T> Show information on AC adaptor, battery status and other devices:\\ 
- $ acpi -a - AC adapter\\ 
- $ acpi -b - battery capacity\\ 
- $ acpi -V (cap) - every device 
- 
-T> Show date and time, set date, time and time zone:\\ 
- $ date - show system date and time\\ 
- $ date -u - show universal time (GMT)\\ 
- $ date %%--%%date='14 days ago' - show date 14 days ago\\ 
- $ date %%--%%date='next month' - show the date next month\\ 
- $ sudo date -set='30 may 2013 18:00' - set system date and time\\ 
- $ sudo date -s '05/30/2013 18:00' - set date and time\\ 
- $ sudo date +%y%m%d -s '20130530' - set the date only\\ 
- $ sudo date +%t -s '18:00' - set time only\\ 
- $ sudo date +%t%p -s '06:10am' - set time, morning\\ 
- $ ntpdate -q - query NTP server date/time, don't reset your system\\ 
- $ sudo ntpdate pool.ntp.org - sync the Linux time with the NTP Pool time Server\\ 
- $ sudo dpkg-reconfigure tzdata - set time zone from geographic region and cities lists 
- 
-T> internet connection check, send packs to a host:\\ 
- $ ping -c3 -a google.com - 3 pack check with audio verification 
- 
-T> List hardware and PCI devices, internal cards and USB headsets:\\ 
- $ lsusb - list USB devices including printers and scanners\\ 
- $ sudo lshw - hardware\\ 
- $ lspci -short - ethernet and wireless\\ 
- $ lspci -nn - show vendors, codes as both numbers & names\\ 
- $ sudo ceni - ethernet & wireless hardware, ctrl+c to cancel\\ 
- $ aplay -l - USB headsets\\ 
- $ wodim %%--%%devices - look for optical CD/DVD devices 
- 
-T> The account you are logged in as, change your password and Linux kernel version:\\ 
- $ who am i - three words\\ 
- $ passwd\\ 
- $ uname -ar 
- 
-T> Shutdown or reboot:\\ 
- $ sudo init 0 - shutdown/halt\\ 
- $ sudo init 6 - reboot\\ 
- $ sudo halt\\ 
- $ sudo reboot\\ 
- $ sudo shutdown -h now\\ 
- $ sudo shutdown -r now 
- 
-T> Send a text file to the default printer:\\ 
- $ lp report.txt\\ 
-Print with default option values for characters&lines per inch:\\ 
- $ lp -o cpi=10 -o lpi=6 report.txt 
- 
-T> Archive, compress (zip) and extract (unzip):\\ 
- $ tar -cf file-all.tar file1 file2 file3 - archive without compression\\ 
- $ bzip2 -k file-all.tar - compress to a .bz2 file, keep input\\ 
- $ tar -cjf file-all.tar.bz2 file1 file2 file3 - 'j' option combines the above 2 examples\\ 
- $ tar -xvf application.tar - options: extract, verbose &file file-name\\ 
- $ tar -zxvf application.tar.gz - extract using g zip 
- 
-T> Backup and restore the boot loader and partition table:\\ 
- $ sudo dd if=/dev/sda of=bkup.bin bs=512 count=1 - backup the MBR & partition table\\ 
- $ sudo dd if=bkup.bin of=/dev/sda bs=446 count=1 - restore only the Mbr\\ 
- $ sudo dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda bs=512 count=1 - write zeros to the first 512 bytes\\ 
-dd options: in-file, out-file, block size, block count.\\ 
-Note: you can use 1K, 1M or 1G (cap). 
- 
-T> Combine many files into one or copy from the keyboard:\\ 
- $ cat file1 file2 file3 > all-files\\ 
- $ cat > file.txt - capture from the keyboard\\ 
- Type your data and close the file with ENTER and ctrl+d. 
- 
-T> Copy a source file to a destination with a few options:\\ 
- syntax: cp [-options] source destination\\ 
- -b - backup, rename destination file with '~' appended to the name before replacing\\ 
- -i - interactive, prompt before overwrite\\ 
- -r - recursive\\ 
- -u - update/overwrite only with a newer file\\ 
- -v - verbose, explain what is being done\\ 
- $ cp -biu phone.txt Back-dir - backup your phone file if modified\\ 
- $ cp -r Documents Documents-back - copy documents directory (and its entries) to a new dir 
- 
-T> Move a file or rename it by moving it to the same directory:\\ 
- $ mv -i phone.txt Documents - move a file to the Documents directory\\ 
- $ mv -i phone.txt phone.old - rename a file (in the same directory) 
- 
-T> Make a directory and verify:\\ 
- $ mkdir -v dir-name 
- 
-T> Remove/delete files or directories:\\ 
- $ rm -iv files* - remove many files and prompt for each\\ 
- $ rm -I (cap) files* - prompt once before removing more than 3 files\\ 
- $ rm -fv files* - force removal\\ 
- $ rm -vr dir-name - remove a full directory recursively\\ 
- $ rmdir -v dir-name - remove an empty directory & verify 
- 
-T> Shred/overwrite a file repeatedly to hide its contents\\ 
- syntax: shred [options] file(s)\\ 
- %%--%%iterations=n %%-%% the default is 3\\ 
- -u or %%--%%remove - delete after overwriting\\ 
- -v - verbose announcement progress\\ 
- -z - overwrite with zeros on the last pass (default is random)\\ 
- $ shred -vz phone.txt\\ 
- Caution: shred does not work on all file systems. 
- 
-T> Write zeros to unused partition space:\\ 
- $ sudo df -h /dev/sda3 - get available space on partition 3\\ 
- $ sudo dd if=/dev/zero of=file bs=1G count=5 - create a zeros file in available space\\ 
- $ rm file - delete the temporary file 
- 
-T> Reset a file's date/time stamp or create a new empty file:\\ 
- $ touch file-name 
- 
-T> Download an ISO file. First time, entire file, then only changed blocks:\\ 
- $ zsync URL\\ 
- $ zsync %%http://cdimage.vinuxproject.org/daily-live/current/vinux-i386.iso.zsync%% 
- 
-T> Burn a live CD/DVD or create a live USB pen drive (using an ISO file):\\ 
- $ wodim blank=fast - erase a read/write disk\\ 
- $ wodim speed=0 linux.iso - use the slowest speed\\ 
- $ sudo dd if=vinux.iso of=/dev/sdb bs=2M (cap) 
- 
-T> Convert text to speech (TTS) using the espeak voice synthesizer:\\ 
- $ spd-say hello - test the speech dispatcher\\ 
- $ espeak -s300 -ven -w file.wav -f file.txt - with high speed & English voice (default) 
- 
-T> OCR steps: scan, enhance and convert to text.\\ 
-Scan into an image file:\\ 
- $ sane-find-scanner -q - look for attached scanners (in quiet mode)\\ 
- $ scanimage -L (cap) - get attached scanner device name\\ 
- $ scanimage %%--%%device 'avision:libusb:002:002' > image.pnm\\ 
- $ scanimage -d 'avision' %%--%%resolution 200 %%--%%mode 'Gray' > image.pnm - more options\\ 
- $ scanimage %%--%%brightness -20 > image.pnm - brightness range from -100 to 100\\ 
- $ scanimage %%--%%format=tiff %%--%%mode 'Color' > image.tiff - tiff with double 'f'\\ 
- $ scanimage -x 100 -y 150 > image.pnm - 4x6 inch colour photo 
- 
-Enhance the scanned image before OCR (optional):\\ 
- $ unpaper -T -v image.pnm unpapered.pnm - test with verbose option\\ 
- $ unpaper image.pnm unpapered.pnm - auto-straighten, align horizontally\\ 
- $ unpaper %%--%%pre-rotate -90|90 image.pnm unpapered.pnm - counterclockwise|clockwise 
- 
-OCR Engines to convert to text:\\ 
- $ tesseract image.pnm out-file -l eng - extension '.txt' will be appended to out-file\\ 
- $ cuneiform -l - list supported languages\\ 
- $ cuneiform image-unpapered.pnm - defaults: English & output to 'cuneiform-out.txt'\\ 
- $ cuneiform -l eng -o file.txt image-unpapered.pnm - override default language & output 
- 
-T> Convert image file formats:\\ 
- $ convert image.pnm image.tif - tif with a single 'f'\\ 
- $ convert image.pnm image.jpg\\ 
- $ convert image.pnm image.pdf 
- 
-T> Listen to a URL site or play music files:\\ 
- $ mplayer dir/*.mp3 - q/ESC=quit, space=pause/play\\ 
- $ mplayer playlist | URL\\ 
- $ vlc dir/*.mp3 - ctrl+c to cancel\\ 
- $ vlc URL - ctrl+c to cancel\\ 
- $ vlc %%http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio/listen/live/r4lw.pls%% - BBC radio 4\\ 
- $ rhythmbox %%--%%playlists-file=file 
- 
-T> Rip music CD's using: abcde, jack (the ripper) & cdparanoia\\ 
-1) Rip music CD tracks (into ~/abcde...):\\ 
-syntax: abcde [-options] [tracks]\\ 
- $ abcde -N -a read,encode,tag -o mp3 -k -x 1-3\\ 
-Some abcde options:\\ 
- -N (cap) - non-interactive (batch) mode\\ 
- -a <ACTIONS> - comma separated\\ 
- -o output-format - ogg is the default\\ 
- -k - keep the wav files after encoding\\ 
- -x - eject disk when finished\\ 
- <track1 track2 ...> or <track-range> - grab individual tracks or a range 
- 
-2) Rip music CD tracks using jack (the ripper):\\ 
-syntax: jack [-options]\\ 
- $ jack - (default) put ogg & log-progress files in jack-label\\ 
- $ jack -q -k - query tag info from freedb, keep wav files\\ 
- $ jack -Q %%--%%remove-files - all in 1: query, rip, encode, cleanup\\ 
- $ jack -t 2,5,7-9 - rip tracks 2, 5 and 7 through 9\\ 
- $ jack %%--%%quality 10 - range: -1=low, 6=default & 10=high\\ 
- $ jack %%--%%bitrate 128\\ 
- $ jack -E lame - use lame to encode to MP3 format\\ 
-notes on using jack.\\ 
- '-Q' (cap) or '-q' (lower) to query at start or end of process.\\ 
- 'q' to quit during the ripping process. 
- 
-3) rip music CD tracks using cdparanoia (from scratched disks),\\ 
- with data verification & scratch reconstruction capability.\\ 
-syntax: cdparanoia [-options] span [outfile]\\ 
- $ cdparanoia -A (cap) - analyze drive caching,timeing and reading behavior\\ 
- $ cdparanoia -B (cap) - batch, rip entire disk, each track in separate wav file\\ 
- $ cdparanoia -B artist.wav - output files: track0x.artist.wav\\ 
- $ cdparanoia -Q (cap) - drive autosense, query, table of contents & quit\\ 
- $ cdparanoia -q or -v - quiet or very verbose\\ 
- $ cdparanoia -X (cap) - abort on skip because of imperfect data, delete partial file\\ 
- $ cdparanoia -z - retry forever if needed, override default  20 retries\\ 
- $ cdparanoia -Z (cap) - fast, disable all data verification & correction features\\ 
- $ cdparanoia 2-5 - rip tracks 2 to 5, into 1 output file: cdda.wav\\ 
- $ cdparanoia -B 2-5 - rip tracks 2 to 5 in batch (separate files)\\ 
- $ cdparanoia -B %%--%% -3 - extract from beginning of disk to end of track 2\\ 
- $ cdparanoia -B 10- - rip track 10 to end of disk\\ 
- $ cdparanoia '1[1:0]' - rip from track 1, offset 1 minute to the end of track\\ 
- $ cdparanoia "2[:30.12]-2[1:10]" - rip from track 2, time: 30.12 sec to 1 min 10 sec\\ 
-Note: the '%%--%%' double dash distinguishes the span '-3' from an option flag. 
- 
-T> Rip a video .vob file from a movie DVD:\\ 
- $ vobcopy -I (cap) - info: list .vob files & the number of chapters in each\\ 
- $ vobcopy - no options, grab .vob file with the most chapters 
- 
-T> Convert text files:\\ 
- $ abiword %%--%%to=pdf -o out-file.pdf in-file.doc - also out=txt/rtf/html\\ 
- $ abiword %%--%%to=pdf in-file.doc - same as above, omit the outfile option\\ 
- $ abiword %%--%%to=txt my-file.doc - out file will be 'my-file.txt'\\ 
- $ antiword mydoc.doc > mydoc.txt\\ 
- $ dd if=in-file.txt of=out-file.txt conv=lcase - convert upper case to lower case\\ 
- $ tr '[:upper:]' '[:lower:]' < input.txt > output.txt - translate to lower case 
- 
-T> Convert/encode Audio/Music Formats:\\ 
-syntax: lame [-options] in-file.wav out-file.mp3\\ 
- $ lame -h in.wav out.mp3 - highest quality, j-stereo, 128kbps (cbr default)\\ 
- $ lame -b 112 in.wav out.mp3 - fixed bit rate 112kbps, j-stereo\\ 
- $ lame -V 4 in.wav out.mp3 - vbr range: 0=highest quality, 4=default, 9\\ 
- $ lame -m m in.wav out.mp3 - mode can be: m=mono, s=simple-stereo, d=dual\\ 
- $ lame -a in.mp3 out.mp3 - mix the stereo input to mono& encode as mono\\ 
- $ lame %%--%%quiet in.mp3 out.wav - output wave quality limited to mp3 compression\\ 
-syntax: oggenc in-file.wav [-options] [out-file]\\ 
- $ oggenc file.wav - output to file.ogg\\ 
- $ oggenc in-file.wav -o out-file.ogg - specify the output file name\\ 
- $ oggenc file.wav -b 256 - a high-quality encoding, average kbps (still VBR)\\ 
- $ oggenc file.wav -q 10 - quality rather than bitrate, range: -1/10 default=3\\ 
- $ oggenc file.wav %%--%%managed -b 196 - turn off the normal VBR\\ 
- $ oggenc *.wav %%--%%quiet - use wildcard for the file name 
- 
-T> Extract or Convert video, extract audio track, get audio duration:\\ 
- $ ffmpeg -formats - list video formats\\ 
- $ ffmpeg -i in.vob -ss 30 -t 00:08:00 -y out.vob - extract, start from 30 seconds, time 8 min\\ 
- $ ffmpeg -i in-video.vob out-video.wma - convert video .vob to .wma\\ 
- $ ffmpeg -i video.vob audio.wav - extract the audio track\\ 
- $ ecalength audio.wav - total time in seconds & minutes:seconds 
- 
-T> Dictionary & Thesaurus definitions, from internet databases:\\ 
- $ dict word\\ 
- $ aiksaurus word\\ 
-note: download databases for offline references:\\ 
- $ sudo apt-get install dict dictd dict-foldoc dict-gcide dict-moby-thesaurus 
- 
-T> Interactive spell-check of a text file:\\ 
- $ ispell report.txt - q=quit 
- 
-T> Get a web page and save it as file-name (default is index.html):\\ 
- $ wget URL -o file-name.html 
- 
-T> Built-in calculator (in interactive and quiet mode):\\ 
- $ bc -q - 'quit' to quit\\ 
- $ bc -q -l - load a math library with scale=20\\ 
-Some bc commands:\\ 
- + (plus), - (minus), * (multiply), / (division)\\ 
- caret - exponent\\ 
- sqrt(2) - square root of 2\\ 
- scale=5 - set 5 decimal precision\\ 
- 
-T> Calendar (displayed in a table layout):\\ 
- $ cal - display the current month\\ 
- $ cal -y - display the 12 months of the current year\\ 
- $ cal 4 2011 - display only April 2011\\ 
- $ ncal -e 2012 - show Easter, default is the current year 
- 
-!!End of Article.  
  
how_to_use_the_command_line_interface_-_examples.txt · Last modified: 2019/02/09 10:31 (external edit)